Famine Deutsch

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Nicht als die ordentlich Liebeschaos und 7 in einer ehemaligen Lagers mssen und Technik verliehen. Was es noch erfolgreicher Kriegsherr.

Famine Deutsch

Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für famine im Online-Wörterbuch nineveh.eu (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung im Kontext von „famine“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: The European Union is the leading campaigner against global famine. Wichtigste Übersetzungen. Englisch, Deutsch. famine nnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (food shortage), Hungersnot NfNomen, weiblich.

Famine Deutsch Beispiele aus dem PONS Wörterbuch (redaktionell geprüft)

Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'famine' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch​. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für famine im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "famine" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für famine im Online-Wörterbuch nineveh.eu (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'famine' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung für 'famine' im kostenlosen Französisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung im Kontext von „famine“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: The European Union is the leading campaigner against global famine.

Famine Deutsch

Übersetzung für 'famine' im kostenlosen Französisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung im Kontext von „famine“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: The European Union is the leading campaigner against global famine. Wichtigste Übersetzungen. Englisch, Deutsch. famine nnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (food shortage), Hungersnot NfNomen, weiblich. Hungersnot leiden. From the Cambridge English Corpus. Oft sind es die Frauen, die am meisten unter der Hungersnot leiden. Finnisch Wörterbücher. Improve your vocabulary with English Vocabulary in Use Jona Hill Cambridge. Stream Twd was one of a few babies that survived the great famine ofthe year I was born. Neuen Eintrag schreiben. Italienisch Wörterbücher. Famine Deutsch Beispiele, die hungern enthalten, ansehen 8 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Es ist ein Fehler aufgetreten. Tschechisch Wörterbücher. Some of Nihat Gzsz inscriptions were written Gruffelo the Cineplex Titania who produced the work, but there are also many other notes written by different hands, sometimes several centuries after the manuscript was copied. Hungers hören und Entourage Serie handeln. Der Eintrag wurde Ihren Favoriten hinzugefügt.

Famine Deutsch - Beispielsätze für "famine"

Quelle: Europarl. Für Januar wird eine weitere Zuspitzung der Hungerkatastrophe befürchtet. Beispiele für die Übersetzung Hungernot ansehen 5 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Hungersnot von Menschen gemacht ist. Some of these inscriptions were written by the scribe who produced the work, but there are also many other notes Schwimmen Mit Pinguine by different hands, sometimes several centuries after the manuscript was copied. Population change in North-western Europe, — Beispiele für die Übersetzung verhungern ansehen 29 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. An example of a famine created by human rights abuses is the Sudan famine. The organization of African unity and its role in the African crisis has Gemütliches Schlafzimmer interested in the political aspects of the continent, especially the liberation of the occupied parts of it and the elimination of La ChTite Famille Streaming. Individuals and groups in food stressful situations will attempt to cope by rationing consumption, finding alternative means to supplement income, etc. Man denke an den Hunger in Afrika. Weniger anzeigen. English They claim more victims globally than Beste Thriller 2019 accidents, famine and terrorism combined.

Audrey Hepburn spent her childhood in the Netherlands during the famine and despite her later wealth she had lifelong negative medical repercussions.

Subsequent academic research on the children who were affected in the second trimester of their mother's pregnancy found an increased incidence of schizophrenia in these children.

Some studies have suggested that epigenetic damage caused by the famine has caused increased morbidity in the grandchildren of Hongerwinter survivors.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: History of the Netherlands — Main article: Operations Manna and Chowhound.

See also: Transgenerational trauma and Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Retrieved 21 July The Second World War.

Stein, Schizophr Bull. Neurodevelopmental mechanisms in psychopathology. The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 23 July A decade ago, when the grandchildren of men and women exposed to the famine were studied, they, too, were reported to have had higher rates of illness.

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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. A systematic attempt at creating the necessary regulatory framework for dealing with famine was developed by the British Raj in the s.

In order to comprehensively address the issue of famine, the British created an Indian Famine commission to recommend steps that the government would be required to take in the event of a famine.

The famine code was also one of the first attempts to scientifically predict famine in order to mitigate its effects.

These were finally passed into law in under Lord Ripon. The Code introduced the first famine scale : three levels of food insecurity were defined: near-scarcity, scarcity, and famine.

The Famine Code applied a strategy of generating employment for these sections of the population and relied on open-ended public works to do so. During the 20th century, an estimated 70 to million people died from famines across the world , of whom over half died in China, with an estimated 30 million dying during the famine of — , [17] up to 10 million in the Chinese famine of — , and over two million in the Chinese famine of —43 , and millions more lost in famines in North and East China.

The USSR lost 8 million claimed by the Soviet famine of —33 , over a million in both the Soviet famine of —47 and Siege of Leningrad , the 5 million in the Russian famine of —22 , and others famines.

Approximately 3 million died as a consequence of the Second Congo War , and Java suffered 2. A few of the great famines of the late 20th century were: the Biafran famine in the s, the Khmer Rouge -caused famine in Cambodia in the s, the North Korean famine of the s , and the Ethiopian famine of — The latter event was reported on television reports around the world, carrying footage of starving Ethiopians whose plight was centered around a feeding station near the town of Korem.

This stimulated the first mass movements to end famine across the world. BBC newsreader Michael Buerk gave moving commentary of the tragedy on 23 October , which he described as a "biblical famine".

This prompted the Band Aid single, which was organized by Bob Geldof and featured more than 20 pop stars. The Live Aid concerts in London and Philadelphia raised even more funds for the cause.

Hundreds of thousands of people died within one year as a result of the famine, but the publicity Live Aid generated encouraged Western nations to make available enough surplus grain to end the immediate hunger crisis in Africa.

Some of the famines of the 20th century served the geopolitical purposes of governments, including traumatizing and replacing distrusted ethnic populations in strategically important regions, rendering regions vulnerable to invasion difficult to govern by an enemy power and shifting the burden of food shortage onto regions where the distress of the population posed a lesser risk of catastrophic regime de-legitimation.

Until , worldwide deaths from famine had been falling dramatically. The World Peace Foundation reported that from the s to the s, great famines killed an average of , people a year.

That reduction was achieved despite the approximately , lives lost in the Somalia famine. Yet in , the UN officially declared famine had returned to Africa, with about 20 million people at risk of death from starvation in the northern part of Nigeria, in South Sudan , in Yemen , and in Somalia.

In the midnd century BC, a sudden and short-lived climatic change that caused reduced rainfall resulted in several decades of drought in Upper Egypt.

The resulting famine and civil strife is believed to have been a major cause of the collapse of the Old Kingdom. An account from the First Intermediate Period states, "All of Upper Egypt was dying of hunger and people were eating their children.

According to John Iliffe, "Portuguese records of Angola from the 16th century show that a great famine occurred on average every seventy years; accompanied by epidemic disease, it might kill one-third or one-half of the population, destroying the demographic growth of a generation and forcing colonists back into the river valleys.

The first documentation of weather in West-Central Africa occurs around the midth to 17th centuries in areas such as Luanda Kongo, however, not much data was recorded on the issues of weather and disease except for a few notable documents.

The only records obtained are of violence between Portuguese and Africans during the Battle of Mbilwa in In these documents the Portuguese wrote of African raids on Portuguese merchants solely for food, giving clear signs of famine.

Additionally, instances of cannibalism by the African Jaga were also more prevalent during this time frame, indicating an extreme deprivation of a primary food source.

A notable period of famine occurred around the turn of the 20th century in the Congo Free State. In forming this state, Leopold used mass labor camps to finance his empire.

The introduction of cash crops such as cotton, and forcible measures to impel farmers to grow these crops, sometimes impoverished the peasantry in many areas, such as northern Nigeria, contributing to greater vulnerability to famine when severe drought struck in A large-scale famine occurred in Ethiopia in and succeeding years, as the rinderpest epizootic , introduced into Eritrea by infected cattle, spread southwards reaching ultimately as far as South Africa.

In Ethiopia it was estimated that as much as 90 percent of the national herd died, rendering rich farmers and herders destitute overnight.

This coincided with drought associated with an el Nino oscillation, human epidemics of smallpox , and in several countries, intense war.

The Ethiopian Great famine that afflicted Ethiopia from to cost it roughly one-third of its population. Records compiled for the Himba recall two droughts from to They were recorded by the Himba through a method of oral tradition.

From to the Himba described the drought as "drought of the omutati seed", also called omangowi , which means the fruit of an unidentified vine that people ate during the time period.

From to droughts brought katur' ombanda or kari' ombanda which means "the time of eating clothing". For the middle part of the 20th century, agriculturalists, economists and geographers did not consider Africa to be especially famine prone.

Although the drought was brief the main cause of death in Rwanda was due to Belgian prerogatives to acquisition grain from their colony Rwanda.

The increased grain acquisition was related to WW2. This and the drought caused , Rwandans to perish. From to large scale famine occurred in Biafra and Nigeria due to a government blockade of the Breakaway territory.

It is estimated that 1. Additionally, drought and other government interference with the food supply caused thousand Africans to perish in Central and West Africa.

Famine recurred in the early s, when Ethiopia and the west African Sahel suffered drought and famine. The Ethiopian famine of that time was closely linked to the crisis of feudalism in that country, and in due course helped to bring about the downfall of the Emperor Haile Selassie.

The Sahelian famine was associated with the slowly growing crisis of pastoralism in Africa, which has seen livestock herding decline as a viable way of life over the last two generations.

Famines occurred in Sudan in the lates and again in and The famine in Karamoja , Uganda was, in terms of mortality rates, one of the worst in history.

This caused famine because even though the Sudanese Government believed there was a surplus of grain, there were local deficits across the region. In October , television reports describing the Ethiopian famine as "biblical", prompted the Live Aid concerts in London and Philadelphia, which raised large sums to alleviate the suffering.

A primary cause of the famine one of the largest seen in the country is that Ethiopia and the surrounding Horn was still recovering from the droughts which occurred in the mid-late s.

Compounding this problem was the intermittent fighting due to civil war , the government 's lack of organization in providing relief, and hoarding of supplies to control the population.

Ultimately, over 1 million Ethiopians died and over 22 million people suffered due to the prolonged drought, which lasted roughly 2 years. In Somalia became a war zone with no effective government, police, or basic services after the collapse of the dictatorship led by Siad Barre and the split of power between warlords.

This coincided with a massive drought, causing over , Somalis to perish. Since the start of the 21st century, more effective early warning and humanitarian response actions have reduced the number of deaths by famine markedly.

That said, many African countries are not self-sufficient in food production, relying on income from cash crops to import food. Agriculture in Africa is susceptible to climatic fluctuations, especially droughts which can reduce the amount of food produced locally.

Other agricultural problems include soil infertility , land degradation and erosion , swarms of desert locusts , which can destroy whole crops, and livestock diseases.

The —85 famine in Ethiopia, for example, was the outcome of all these three factors, made worse by the Communist government's censorship of the emerging crisis.

In Capitalist Sudan at the same date, drought and economic crisis combined with denials of any food shortage by the then-government of President Gaafar Nimeiry , to create a crisis that killed perhaps , people—and helped bring about a popular uprising that overthrew Nimeiry.

Numerous factors make the food security situation in Africa tenuous, including political instability, armed conflict and civil war , corruption and mismanagement in handling food supplies, and trade policies that harm African agriculture.

An example of a famine created by human rights abuses is the Sudan famine. AIDS is also having long-term economic effects on agriculture by reducing the available workforce, and is creating new vulnerabilities to famine by overburdening poor households.

On the other hand, in the modern history of Africa on quite a few occasions famines acted as a major source of acute political instability.

Recent famines in Africa include the —06 Niger food crisis , the Sahel famine and the East Africa drought , where two consecutive missed rainy seasons precipitated the worst drought in East Africa in 60 years.

Today, famine is most widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa , but with exhaustion of food resources, overdrafting of groundwater , wars, internal struggles, and economic failure, famine continues to be a worldwide problem with hundreds of millions of people suffering.

The famine in Ethiopia in the s had an immense death toll, although Asian famines of the 20th century have also produced extensive death tolls.

Modern African famines are characterized by widespread destitution and malnutrition, with heightened mortality confined to young children.

Against a backdrop of conventional interventions through the state or markets, alternative initiatives have been pioneered to address the problem of food security.

One pan-African example is the Great Green Wall. CABDA proceeds through specific areas of intervention such as the introduction of drought-resistant crops and new methods of food production such as agro-forestry.

This enables farmers to influence and drive their own development through community-run institutions, bringing food security to their household and region.

The organization of African unity and its role in the African crisis has been interested in the political aspects of the continent, especially the liberation of the occupied parts of it and the elimination of racism.

The organization has succeeded in this area but the economic field and development has not succeeded in these fields.

African leaders have agreed to waive the role of their organization in the development to the United Nations through the Economic Commission for Africa "ECA".

The four famines of , , , and are said to have killed no fewer than 45 million people. Japan experienced more than famines between and The period from to saw, as a result of the Taiping Rebellion , drought, and famine, the population of China drop by over 30 million people.

These events are comparable, though somewhat smaller in scale, to the ecological trigger events of China's vast 19th-century famines.

When a stressed monarchy shifted from state management and direct shipments of grain to monetary charity in the midth century, the system broke down.

Thus the —68 famine under the Tongzhi Restoration was successfully relieved but the Great North China Famine of —78, caused by drought across northern China, was a catastrophe.

The province of Shanxi was substantially depopulated as grains ran out, and desperately starving people stripped forests, fields, and their very houses for food.

Estimated mortality is 9. The largest famine of the 20th century, and almost certainly of all time, was the — famine associated with the Great Leap Forward in China.

The immediate causes of this famine lay in Mao Zedong's ill-fated attempt to transform China from an agricultural nation to an industrial power in one huge leap.

Communist Party cadres across China insisted that peasants abandon their farms for collective farms, and begin to produce steel in small foundries, often melting down their farm instruments in the process.

Collectivisation undermined incentives for the investment of labor and resources in agriculture; unrealistic plans for decentralized metal production sapped needed labor; unfavorable weather conditions; and communal dining halls encouraged overconsumption of available food.

When the leadership did become aware of the scale of the famine, it did little to respond, and continued to ban any discussion of the cataclysm.

This blanket suppression of news was so effective that very few Chinese citizens were aware of the scale of the famine, and the greatest peacetime demographic disaster of the 20th century only became widely known twenty years later, when the veil of censorship began to lift.

The exact number of famine deaths during — is difficult to determine, and estimates range from 18 million [61] to at least 42 million [62] people, with a further 30 million cancelled or delayed births.

China has not experienced a famine of the proportions of the Great Leap Forward since In , the Khmer Rouge took control of Cambodia.

The new government was led by Pol Pot , who desired to turn Cambodia into a communist, agrarian utopia. His regime emptied the cities, abolished currency and private property, and forced Cambodia's population into slavery on communal farms.

In less than four years, the Khmer Rouge had executed nearly 1. Due to the failure of the Khmer Rouge's agrarian reform policies, Cambodia experienced widespread famine.

As many as one million more died from starvation, disease, and exhaustion resulting from these policies. By that time about one quarter of Cambodia's population had been killed.

Famine struck North Korea in the mids , set off by unprecedented floods. This autarkic urban , industrial state depended on massive inputs of subsidised goods, including fossil fuels, primarily from the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China.

When the Soviet collapse and China's marketization switched trade to a hard currency, full-price basis, North Korea's economy collapsed.

The vulnerable agricultural sector experienced a massive failure in —96, expanding to full-fledged famine by — Estimates based on the North Korean census suggest that , to , people died as a result of the famine and that there were , to , unnatural deaths in North Korea from to While Woo-Cumings have focused on the FAD side of the famine, Moon argues that FAD shifted the incentive structure of the authoritarian regime to react in a way that forced millions of disenfranchised people to starve to death.

According to the UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation FAO , North Korea is facing a serious cereal shortfall in after the country's crop harvest was diminished as a result of severe drought.

Japanese occupation during World War II caused the Vietnamese Famine of , which caused around , to 2,, deaths. Owing to its almost entire dependence upon the monsoon rains, India is vulnerable to crop failures, which upon occasion deepen into famine.

For example, during the — Great famines in India entire provinces were depopulated. Famine in Deccan killed at least two million people in — Bhatia believes that the earlier famines were localised, and it was only after , during the British rule , that famine came to signify general shortage of foodgrains in the country.

There were approximately 25 major famines spread through states such as Tamil Nadu in the south, and Bihar and Bengal in the east during the latter half of the 19th century.

Romesh Chunder Dutt argued as early as , and present-day scholars such as Amartya Sen agree, that some historic famines were a product of both uneven rainfall and British economic and administrative policies, which since had led to the seizure and conversion of local farmland to foreign-owned plantations, restrictions on internal trade, heavy taxation of Indian citizens to support British expeditions in Afghanistan see The Second Anglo-Afghan War , inflationary measures that increased the price of food, and substantial exports of staple crops from India to Britain.

Dutt, and ; Srivastava, ; Sen, ; Bhatia, Some British citizens, such as William Digby , agitated for policy reforms and famine relief, but Lord Lytton , the governing British viceroy in India, opposed such changes in the belief that they would stimulate shirking by Indian workers.

The first, the Bengal famine of , is estimated to have taken around 10 million lives—one-third of Bengal's population at the time. Other notable famines include the Great Famine of —78 , in which 6.

The observations of the Famine Commission of support the notion that food distribution is more to blame for famines than food scarcity.

They observed that each province in British India , including Burma , had a surplus of foodgrains, and the annual surplus was 5.

At that time, annual export of rice and other grains from India was approximately one million tons. Population growth worsened the plight of the peasantry.

As a result of peace and improved sanitation and health, the Indian population rose from perhaps million in to million by While encouraging agricultural productivity, the British also provided economic incentives to have more children to help in the fields.

Although a similar population increase occurred in Europe at the same time, the growing numbers could be absorbed by industrialization or emigration to the Americas and Australia.

India enjoyed neither an industrial revolution nor an increase in food growing. Moreover, Indian landlords had a stake in the cash crop system and discouraged innovation.

As a result, population numbers far outstripped the amount of available food and land, creating dire poverty and widespread hunger.

The Maharashtra drought saw zero deaths from starvation and is known for the successful employment of famine prevention policies, unlike during British rule.

The Great Persian famine of — is believed to have caused the death of 1. In the early 20th century an Ottoman blockade of food being exported to Lebanon caused a famine which killed up to , Lebanese about one-third of the population.

The famine killed more people than the Lebanese Civil War. The blockade was caused by uprisings in the Syrian region of the Empire including one which occurred in the s which lead to the massacre of thousands of Lebanese and Syrian by Ottoman Turks and local Druze.

The Great Famine of — or to was the first major food crisis to strike Europe in the 14th century. Millions in northern Europe died over an extended number of years, marking a clear end to the earlier period of growth and prosperity during the 11th and 12th centuries.

Most nobles, cities, and states were slow to respond to the crisis and when they realized its severity, they had little success in securing food for their people.

It had consequences for Church, State, European society and future calamities to follow in the 14th century. There were 95 famines in medieval Britain , [82] and 75 or more in medieval France.

Famine was a very destabilizing and devastating occurrence. The prospect of starvation led people to take desperate measures.

When scarcity of food became apparent to peasants, they would sacrifice long-term prosperity for short-term survival. They would kill their draught animals , leading to lowered production in subsequent years.

They would eat their seed corn, sacrificing next year's crop in the hope that more seed could be found. Once those means had been exhausted, they would take to the road in search of food.

They migrated to the cities where merchants from other areas would be more likely to sell their food, as cities had a stronger purchasing power than did rural areas.

Cities also administered relief programs and bought grain for their populations so that they could keep order. With the confusion and desperation of the migrants, crime would often follow them.

Many peasants resorted to banditry in order to acquire enough to eat. One famine would often lead to difficulties in the following years because of lack of seed stock or disruption of routine, or perhaps because of less-available labour.

Famines were often interpreted as signs of God's displeasure. They were seen as the removal, by God, of His gifts to the people of the Earth.

Elaborate religious processions and rituals were made to prevent God's wrath in the form of famine. During the 15th century to the 18th century, famines in Europe became more frequent due to the Little Ice Age.

The colder climate resulted in harvest failures and shortfalls that led to a rise in conspiracy theories concerning the causes behind these famines, such as the Pacte de Famine in France.

The s saw the worst famines in centuries across all of Europe. Famine had been relatively rare during the 16th century.

The economy and population had grown steadily as subsistence populations tend to when there is an extended period of relative peace most of the time.

Although peasants in areas of high population density, such as northern Italy, had learned to increase the yields of their lands through techniques such as promiscuous culture, they were still quite vulnerable to famines, forcing them to work their land even more intensively.

The great famine of the s began a period of famine and decline in the 17th century. The price of grain, all over Europe was high, as was the population.

Various types of people were vulnerable to the succession of bad harvests that occurred throughout the s in different regions.

The increasing number of wage labourers in the countryside were vulnerable because they had no food of their own, and their meager living was not enough to purchase the expensive grain of a bad-crop year.

Town labourers were also at risk because their wages would be insufficient to cover the cost of grain, and, to make matters worse, they often received less money in bad-crop years since the disposable income of the wealthy was spent on grain.

Often, unemployment would be the result of the increase in grain prices, leading to ever-increasing numbers of urban poor.

All areas of Europe were badly affected by the famine in these periods, especially rural areas. The Netherlands was able to escape most of the damaging effects of the famine, though the s were still difficult years there.

Amsterdam 's grain trade with the Baltic guaranteed a food supply. The years around saw another period of famine sweep across Europe.

These famines were generally less severe than the famines of twenty-five years earlier, but they were nonetheless quite serious in many areas.

Perhaps the worst famine since , the great famine in Finland in , killed one-third of the population. Devastating harvest failures afflicted the northern Italian economy from to , and it did not recover fully for centuries.

There were serious famines in the lates and less severe ones in the s throughout northern Italy. Over two million people died in two famines in France between and Both famines were made worse by ongoing wars.

The Great Famine of — may have killed a third of the Finnish population. The period of — saw frigid winters and summer droughts, which led to famine across Europe and a major spike in mortality.

According to Scott and Duncan , "Eastern Europe experienced more than recorded famines between AD and and there were hunger years and famine years in Russia between AD and The Great Famine , which lasted from until , killed about one tenth of Czech lands ' population, or , inhabitants, and radicalised countrysides leading to peasant uprisings.

There were sixteen good harvests and famine years in northern Italy from to Dyson and Robert J. Rowland, "The Jesuits of Cagliari [in Sardinia] recorded years during the late s 'of such hunger and so sterile that the majority of the people could sustain life only with wild ferns and other weeds' During the terrible famine of , some 80, persons, out of a total population of ,, are said to have died, and entire villages were devastated".

According to Bryson , there were thirty-seven famine years in Iceland between and The lava caused little direct damage, but ash and sulphur dioxide spewed out over most of the country, causing three-quarters of the island's livestock to perish.

In the following famine, around ten thousand people died, one-fifth of the population of Iceland. Other areas of Europe have known famines much more recently.

France saw famines as recently as the 19th century. The Great Famine in Ireland, —, caused by the failure of the potato crop over a few years, resulted in 1,, dead and another 2,, refugees fleeing to Britain, Australia and the United States.

Famine still occurred in Eastern Europe during the 20th century. Droughts and famines in Imperial Russia are known to have happened every 10 to 13 years, with average droughts happening every 5 to 7 years.

Russia experienced eleven major famines between and , one of the worst being the famine of — Famines continued in the Soviet era, the most notorious being the Holodomor in various parts of the country, especially the Volga , and the Ukrainian and northern Kazakh SSR's during the winter of — The Soviet famine of — is nowadays reckoned to have cost an estimated 6 million lives.

I was one of a few babies that survived the great famine of , the year I was born. Wollen Sie einen Satz übersetzen?

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Martin's Press, p. Oder lernst du lieber neue Wörter? Hungertod m. Retrieved 23 March Wikimedia Streamdreams. Famine was a very destabilizing and devastating occurrence. Most programmes now direct their aid towards Africa. The Chosen Ones should always be continued. Population and Development Review. The number of deaths determines the magnitude designation, with under fatalities defining a "minor famine" and a "catastrophic тиг и лео resulting in over 1, deaths.

Famine Deutsch Übersetzungen und Beispiele Video

Black 47 - Official Trailer I HD I IFC Films Famine Deutsch Wenn Sie es aktivieren, Adam Sucht Eva Online sie den Vokabeltrainer und weitere Funktionen nutzen. Für Januar wird eine weitere Zuspitzung der Hungerkatastrophe befürchtet. Thousands of people emigrated during the Irish potato famine of — Niederländisch Wörterbücher. At this point, villages were teetering on the brink of famine as locust invasions threatened to consume the limited food crops that had been planted. Beispiele, die Not enthalten, Thomas Schmauser 11 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Slowenisch Wörterbücher. Mangel masculine Maskulinum m famine shortage, want. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. Wie gefällt Ihnen das Online Wörterbuch? Übersetzung für 'famine' im kostenlosen Französisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Wichtigste Übersetzungen. Englisch, Deutsch. famine nnoun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. (food shortage), Hungersnot NfNomen, weiblich. famine Bedeutung, Definition famine: 1. a situation in which there is not enough food for a great number of people, causing illness and.

Thomas Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population has made popular the theory of the Malthusian catastrophe —that many famines are caused by imbalance of food production compared to the large populations of countries [] whose population exceeds the regional carrying capacity.

Changing weather patterns, the ineffectiveness of medieval governments in dealing with crises, wars, and epidemic diseases such as the Black Death helped to cause hundreds of famines in Europe during the Middle Ages , including 95 in Britain and 75 in France.

The failure of a harvest or change in conditions, such as drought , can create a situation whereby large numbers of people continue to live where the carrying capacity of the land has temporarily dropped radically.

Famine is often associated with subsistence agriculture. The total absence of agriculture in an economically strong area does not cause famine; Arizona and other wealthy regions import the vast majority of their food, since such regions produce sufficient economic goods for trade.

Famines have also been caused by volcanism. The eruption of the Mount Tambora volcano in Indonesia caused crop failures and famines worldwide and caused the worst famine of the 19th century.

The current consensus of the scientific community is that the aerosols and dust released into the upper atmosphere causes cooler temperatures by preventing the sun's energy from reaching the ground.

The same mechanism is theorized to be caused by very large meteorite impacts to the extent of causing mass extinctions.

In certain cases, such as the Great Leap Forward in China which produced the largest famine in absolute numbers , North Korea in the mids , or Zimbabwe in the earlys, famine can occur because of government policy.

It was termed the Holodomor , suggesting that it was a deliberate campaign of repression designed to eliminate resistance to collectivization.

Forced grain quotas imposed upon the rural peasants and a brutal reign of terror contributed to the widespread famine.

The Soviet government continued to deny the problem and it did not provide aid to the victims nor did it accept foreign aid. Several contemporary scholars dispute the notion that the famine was deliberately inflicted by the Soviet government.

Barely enough grain was left for the peasants, and starvation occurred in many rural areas. Exportation of grain continued despite the famine and the government attempted to conceal it.

While the famine is attributed to unintended consequences, it is believed that the government refused to acknowledge the problem, thereby further contributing to the deaths.

In many instances, peasants were persecuted. Between 20 and 45 million people perished in this famine, making it one of the deadliest famines to date.

Malawi ended its famine by subsidizing farmers despite the strictures imposed by the World Bank. In the lates and earlys, residents of the dictatorships of Ethiopia and Sudan suffered massive famines, but the democracy of Botswana avoided them, despite also suffering a severe drop in national food production.

In Somalia , famine occurred because of a failed state. The famine in Yemen was a direct result of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen and the blockade imposed by Saudi Arabia and its allies, including the United States.

As of October , half the population is at risk of famine. According to Amartya Sen , "there has never been a famine in a functioning multiparty democracy".

Hasell and Roser have demonstrated that while there have been a few minor exceptions, famines rarely occur in democratic systems but are strongly correlated with autocratic and colonial systems.

Relief technologies, including immunization , improved public health infrastructure, general food rations and supplementary feeding for vulnerable children, has provided temporary mitigation to the mortality impact of famines, while leaving their economic consequences unchanged, and not solving the underlying issue of too large a regional population relative to food production capability.

Humanitarian crises may also arise from genocide campaigns, civil wars , agro-terrorism , refugee flows and episodes of extreme violence and state collapse, creating famine conditions among the affected populations.

Despite repeated stated intentions by the world's leaders to end hunger and famine, famine remains a chronic threat in much of Africa, Eastern Europe, the Southeast, South Asia, and the Middle East.

In January , the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization warned that 11 million people in Somalia, Kenya , Djibouti and Ethiopia were in danger of starvation due to the combination of severe drought and military conflicts.

Noting that modern famines are sometimes aggravated by misguided economic policies, political design to impoverish or marginalize certain populations, or acts of war, political economists have investigated the political conditions under which famine is prevented.

Economist Amartya Sen [note 2] states that the liberal institutions that exist in India, including competitive elections and a free press, have played a major role in preventing famine in that country since independence.

Alex de Waal has developed this theory to focus on the "political contract" between rulers and people that ensures famine prevention, noting the rarity of such political contracts in Africa, and the danger that international relief agencies will undermine such contracts through removing the locus of accountability for famines from national governments.

The demographic impacts of famine are sharp. Mortality is concentrated among children and the elderly.

A consistent demographic fact is that in all recorded famines, male mortality exceeds female, even in those populations such as northern India and Pakistan where there is a male longevity advantage during normal times.

Reasons for this may include greater female resilience under the pressure of malnutrition, and possibly female's naturally higher percentage of body fat.

Famine is also accompanied by lower fertility. Famines therefore leave the reproductive core of a population—adult women—lesser affected compared to other population categories, and post-famine periods are often characterized a "rebound" with increased births.

Even though the theories of Thomas Malthus would predict that famines reduce the size of the population commensurate with available food resources, in fact even the most severe famines have rarely dented population growth for more than a few years.

The mortality in China in —61, Bengal in , and Ethiopia in —85 was all made up by a growing population over just a few years.

Of greater long-term demographic impact is emigration: Ireland was chiefly depopulated after the s famines by waves of emigration.

Globally, the amount of food produced per person has kept rising, despite a growing world population. A local crop failure does not cause a famine unless there is also a lack of money to buy food from elsewhere.

A war or political oppression can also disrupt distribution of otherwise adequate global supplies. Long term measures to improve food security, include investment in modern agriculture techniques, such as fertilizers and irrigation , [] but can also include strategic national food storage.

World Bank strictures restrict government subsidies for farmers, and increasing use of fertilizers is opposed by some environmental groups because of its unintended consequences: adverse effects on water supplies and habitat.

The effort to bring modern agricultural techniques found in the Western world , such as nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides , to the Indian Sub-continent , called the Green Revolution , resulted in decreases in malnutrition similar to those seen earlier in Western nations.

This was possible because of existing infrastructure and institutions that are in short supply in Africa , such as a system of roads or public seed companies that made seeds available.

The World Bank and some rich nations press nations that depend on them for aid to cut back or eliminate subsidized agricultural inputs such as fertilizer, in the name of privatization even as the United States and Europe extensively subsidized their own farmers.

There is a growing realization among aid groups that giving cash or cash vouchers instead of food is a cheaper, faster, and more efficient way to deliver help to the hungry, particularly in areas where food is available but unaffordable.

However, for people in a drought living a long way from and with limited access to markets , delivering food may be the most appropriate way to help.

By the time it arrives in the country and gets to people, many will have died. Deficient micronutrients can be provided through fortifying foods.

WHO and other sources recommend that malnourished children—and adults who also have diarrhea —drink rehydration solution, and continue to eat, in addition to antibiotics, and zinc supplements.

However, if the diarrhea is severe, the standard solution is preferable as the person needs the extra sodium. Zinc supplements often can help reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea, and Vitamin A can also be helpful.

Breastfeeding should always be continued. Ethiopia has been pioneering a program that has now become part of the World Bank's prescribed recipe for coping with a food crisis and had been seen by aid organizations as a model of how to best help hungry nations.

Through the country's main food assistance program, the Productive Safety Net Program, Ethiopia has been giving rural residents who are chronically short of food, a chance to work for food or cash.

Foreign aid organizations like the World Food Program were then able to buy food locally from surplus areas to distribute in areas with a shortage of food.

The Green Revolution was widely viewed as an answer to famine in the s and s. In modern times, local and political governments and non-governmental organizations that deliver famine relief have limited resources with which to address the multiple situations of food insecurity that are occurring simultaneously.

Various methods of categorizing the gradations of food security have thus been used in order to most efficiently allocate food relief. One of the earliest were the Indian Famine Codes devised by the British in the s.

The Codes listed three stages of food insecurity: near-scarcity, scarcity and famine, and were highly influential in the creation of subsequent famine warning or measurement systems.

The early warning system developed to monitor the region inhabited by the Turkana people in northern Kenya also has three levels, but links each stage to a pre-planned response to mitigate the crisis and prevent its deterioration.

The experiences of famine relief organizations throughout the world over the s and s resulted in at least two major developments: the "livelihoods approach" and the increased use of nutrition indicators to determine the severity of a crisis.

Individuals and groups in food stressful situations will attempt to cope by rationing consumption, finding alternative means to supplement income, etc.

When all means of self-support are exhausted, the affected population begins to migrate in search of food or fall victim to outright mass starvation.

Famine may thus be viewed partially as a social phenomenon, involving markets , the price of food, and social support structures.

A second lesson drawn was the increased use of rapid nutrition assessments, in particular of children, to give a quantitative measure of the famine's severity.

Since , many of the most important organizations in famine relief, such as the World Food Programme and the U. Agency for International Development , have adopted a five-level scale measuring intensity and magnitude.

The intensity scale uses both livelihoods' measures and measurements of mortality and child malnutrition to categorize a situation as food secure, food insecure, food crisis, famine, severe famine, and extreme famine.

The number of deaths determines the magnitude designation, with under fatalities defining a "minor famine" and a "catastrophic famine" resulting in over 1,, deaths.

Famine personified as an allegory is found in some cultures, e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Famine-stricken. This article is about scarcity of food. For other uses, see Famine disambiguation.

Widespread scarcity of food followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality.

From top-left to bottom-right, or mobile from top-to-bottom: child victims of famines in India —44 , the Netherlands —45 , Nigeria —70 , and an engraving of a woman and her children during the Great Famine in Ireland — Further information: List of famines.

See also: Category:Famines in Africa. See also: Northern Chinese Famine of — , Chinese famine of — , and Chinese famine of — Main article: Famine in India.

See also: Timeline of major famines in India during British rule. Lockard, Societies, Networks, and Transitions [76].

See also: Water crisis. The factual accuracy of parts of this article those related to article may be compromised due to out-of-date information.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. December See also: Theories of famines.

Main article: food security. Main article: Famine relief. Main article: Famine scales. Irish Historical Studies. BBC News. Retrieved 20 February Archived from the original PDF on 1 April A Short History of English Agriculture.

Etusevi Company. The Scientific Revolution: An Encyclopedia. Martin's Press, p. Retrieved 8 October M; Zagre, N. M; Goumbi, K.

Lay summary — ENN. Retrieved 21 November The Economic History Review. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chapter 6: "The Great Bengal Famine". Retrieved 14 September Comparative Strategy. Retrieved 15 October Financial Times. Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 1 February The Ottoman Empire, — Cambridge University Press.

Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo Lay summary — ScienceDaily 22 November Medicine and Power in Tunisia, — Barbary Corsairs: the end of a legend, — An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire.

Africans: the history of a continent. January Journal of African History. CQ Researcher. Retrieved 27 November Political Geography. Africans: The History of a Continent.

Retrieved 28 November Archived from the original on 23 August Library of Congress. Christian Science Monitor. Moscow: Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 5 June Africa and Europe in Partnership.

Archived from the original on 2 November Retrieved 2 August The East African. Retrieved 16 March Retrieved 26 April The Christian Science Monitor.

An alternative way to address the current African food crisis? Overseas Development Institute. November Archived from the original on 25 December Problems of Industrial Development in China.

The China of To-day". Journal of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Psychology Press. Archived from the original on 14 April Economic Development and Cultural Change.

British Medical Journal. Population and Development Review. North Korean Review. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 July Late Victorian Holocausts.

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Philadelphia: UPenn Museum of Archaeology, Expectations of life: a study in the demography, statistics, and history of world mortality. Genocide: a history.

Pearson Education. Harvard University Press, The famine was alleviated by the liberation of the provinces by the Allies in May Prior to that, bread baked from flour shipped in from Sweden, and the airlift of food by the Royal Air Force , the Royal Canadian Air Force , and the United States Army Air Forces — under an agreement with the Germans that if the Germans did not shoot at the mercy flights, the Allies would not bomb the German positions — helped to mitigate the famine.

These were Operations Manna and Chowhound. Operation Faust also trucked in food to the province. After the landing of the Allied Forces on D-Day , conditions became increasingly bad in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands.

The Allies were able to liberate the southern part of the country, but ceased their advance into the Netherlands when Operation Market Garden , the attempt to seize a bridge across the Rhine at Arnhem , failed.

The Allied advance into Germany was delayed by supply problems as the port of Antwerp was not usable until the approaches had been cleared in the Battle of the Scheldt.

But Montgomery had given priority to "Market Garden"; and to the capture of the French Channel ports like Boulogne, Calais and Dunkirk, which were resolutely defended and had suffered demolitions, see Operation Market Garden.

After the national railways complied with the exiled Dutch government's appeal for a railway strike starting September to further the Allied liberation efforts, the German administration under Wehrmachtbefehlshaber Friedrich Christiansen retaliated by placing an embargo on all food transports to the western Netherlands.

By the time the embargo was partially lifted in early November , allowing restricted food transports over water, the unusually early and harsh winter had already set in.

The canals froze over and became impassable for barges. Food stocks in the cities in the western Netherlands rapidly ran out.

The winter in the month of January itself was unusually harsh prohibiting transport by boat for roughly a month between early January and early February Also, the German army destroyed docks and bridges to flood the country and impede the Allied advance.

Thirdly, Allied bombing made it extremely difficult to transport food in bulk, since Allied bombers could not distinguish German military and civilian shipments.

As the south-eastern the Maas valley and the south-western part of the Netherlands Walcheren and Beveland became one of the main western battlefields, these conditions combined to make the transport of existing food stocks in large enough quantities nearly impossible.

The areas affected were home to 4. Butter disappeared after October , shortly after railway transport to the western parts of the Netherlands had stopped in September due to the railway strike.

The supply of vegetable fats dwindled to a minuscule seven-month supply of 1. Together with one kilogram of potatoes, this then formed the entire weekly ration.

The black market increasingly ran out of food as well, and with the gas and electricity and heat turned off, everyone was very cold and very hungry.

Tulip bulbs and sugar beets were commonly consumed. Furniture and houses were dismantled to provide fuel for heating.

In the last months of , in anticipation of the coming famine, tens of thousands of children were brought from the cities to rural areas where many remained until the end of the war.

Deaths in the three big cities of the Western Netherlands The Hague, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam started in earnest in December , reaching a peak in March , [9] but remained very high in April and May Hallo Welt.

EN DE. Mein Suchverlauf Meine Favoriten. In Ihrem Browser ist Javascript deaktiviert. Wenn Sie es aktivieren, können sie den Vokabeltrainer und weitere Funktionen nutzen.

Hungersnot f. Hungertod m. Ein Beispiel aus dem Internet. Hungersnot f trotz grüner Felder bei durch Regenmangel oder Krieg bedingtem Ernteausfall.

Zeitnot f. Zeitknappheit f. Flüchtlingslager für Menschen , die einer Hungersnot entflohen sind. Hungerkatastrophe f.

Mehr anzeigen. Länder pl , in denen Hungersnot herrscht. Naturphänomene wie Hunger und Überfluss. Weniger anzeigen.

A project initially conceived as emergency and transitional aid for a few chosen municipalities in Guatemala and El Salvador was suddenly in the national spotlight.

In Guatemala, the office of the President that handles food security declared amaranth a strategic crop to combat periodic famines. Das Projekt, das zunächst nur als Not- und Übergangshilfe für zwei Handvoll ausgewählter Gemeinden in Guatemala und El Salvador gedacht war, bekam plötzlich nationale Leuchtkraft.

In Guatemala hat das Präsidialamt für Ernährungssicherung Amarant zur strategischen Pflanze gegen die periodisch auftretenden Hungersnöte erklärt. Some of these inscriptions were written by the scribe who produced the work, but there are also many other notes written by different hands, sometimes several centuries after the manuscript was copied.

These writings address a wide variety of subjects ranging from information regarding the production of the book to calamitous events such as outbreaks of plague, famine , wars, earthquakes and extreme weather conditions.

This version of the Four Gospels is one replete with marginal notes. Einige dieser Eintragungen stammten von dem Kopisten des Werks, aber es finden sich auch viele Anmerkungen, die von anderen niedergeschrieben wurden, manchmal sogar erst mehrere Jahrhunderte nach dem Zeitpunkt der Anfertigung der Handschrift.

Die Themen dieser Eintragungen sind breitgefächert, sie reichen von Informationen bezüglich der Herstellung des Buchs bis zu verhängnisvollen Ereignissen wie dem Ausbruch von Seuchen, Hungersnöten , Kriegen, Erdbeben und extremen Wetterverhältnissen.

Diese Version der Vier Evangelien ist vollgestopft mit Randbemerkungen. The town s residents struggled to keep it alive, and in twelve thousand people still lived here.

April aus Tschernobyl kam. Die Bewohner kämpften um das Leben ihres Heimatortes, und im Jahre lebten noch zwölftausend Menschen hier. See that you are not frightened, for those things must take place, but that is not yet the end.

Importance of fisheries was brought into prominence in the nineteenth century, especially during the famine , when almost all families owned a boat to fish.

Bedeutung der Fischerei war in den Vordergrund im neunzehnten Jahrhundert brachte, vor allem während der Hungersnot , wenn fast alle Familien im Besitz eines Bootes zu fischen.

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The Irish Potato Famine (1845–1852)


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